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Abstract ? Microplastics are widely found in both aquatic and terrestrial environments. ? Cleaning products and discarded plastic waste are primary sources of microplastics. ? Microplastics have apparent toxic effects on the growth of fish and soil plants. ? Multiple strains of biodegradable microplastics have been isolated. Microplastics (MPs) are distributed in the oceans, freshwater, and soil environment and have become major pollutants. MPs are generally referred to as plastic particles less than 5 mm in diameter. They consist of primary microplastics synthesized in microscopic size manufactured production and secondary microplastics generated by physical and environmental degradation. Plastic particles are long-lived pollutants that are highly resistant to environmental degradation. In this review, the distribution and possible sources of MPs in aquatic and terrestrial environments are described. Moreover, the adverse effects of MPs on natural creatures due to ingestion have been discussed. We also have summarized identification methods based on MPs particle size and chemical bond. To control the pollution of MPs, the biodegradation of MPs under the action of different microbes has also been reviewed in this work. This review will contribute to a better understanding of MPs pollution in the environment, as well as their identification, toxicity, and biodegradation in the ocean, freshwater, and soil, and the assessment and control of microplastics exposure.

Qinghui Sun ,   Juan Li   et al.
Abstract A La-doped Co-Cu-Fe catalyst was synthesized for the antipyrine (ANT) removal. The La-doped catalyst had higher ANT removal than the control (95% vs. 54%). La reduced the particle size and increased the specific surface area of catalyst. The aim of this study was to synthesize a novel lanthanum (La) doped catalyst and to investigate antipyrine removal in wastewater using the Fenton-like process with the catalyst. The La-doped Co-Cu-Fe catalyst was synthesized using the modified hydrothermal method. Results showed that the La-doped catalyst had higher specific surface area and lower particle size than the catalyst without La doping (i.e., the control) (267 vs. 163 m2/g and 14 vs. 32 nm, respectively). Under the conditions of catalyst dosage 0.5 g/L, H2O2 concentration 1.70 g/L, and NaHCO3 0.1 g/L, the antipyrine removal within 60 min using the Fenton-like process with the La-doped catalyst was much higher than that with the control (95% vs. 54%). The hydroxyl radical concentration with the La-doped catalyst within 60 min was two times higher than that with the control (49.2 vs. 22.1 mg/L). The high catalytic activity of La-doped catalyst was mainly attributed to its high specific surface area based on the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy result. Our La-doped catalyst should have great potential to remove antipyrine in wastewater using the heterogeneous Fenton-like process.

Shicheng Wei ,   Cuiping Zeng   et al.
Abstract ? A way for overflow control based on on-site coagulation/flocculation was proposed. ? Coagulant and flocculant dose were optimized based on pollutant removal performance. ? Settling time of 5 min is enough in a proper transmission distance. ? Fast removal of particulate pollutants could be achieved under varied flow. The pollution caused by wet weather overflow in urban drainage systems is a main factor causing blackening an odorization of urban rivers. The conventional overflow treatment based on coagulation/flocculation in terminal drainage systems requires relatively large space and long retention time demand that makes it not applicable in crowded urban drainage systems or under heavy rains. On-site coagulation/flocculation in terminal drainage pipes was proposed in this study which was aimed to transfer the coagulation/flocculation process to the inside of pipes at the terminal drainage system to save space and reduce the retention time of the coagulation/flocculation process. The optimized dose of chemicals was studied first which was 80 mg/L of coagulant and 0.8 mg/L of flocculant. Settling for only 5 min can remove most of the pollutants at 406.5 m of transmission distance. In addition, the relation of wet weather overflow rate and concentration of pollution load on the on-site coagulation/flocculation process was investigated, which indicated that high removal of pollutant was gained at a large range of flow velocity and pollutant concentration. Finally, the study confirmed electric neutralization, bridging, and net capture as the major mechanisms in this process, and further optimization was proposed. The proposed process can reduce much turbidity, chemical oxygen demand, and total phosphorous, but hardly remove soluble ammonia and organics. This work provides scientific guidance to address wet weather overflow in terminal drainage pipes.

Zongqun Chen ,   Wei Jin   et al.
Abstract ? A new EK-BIO technology was developed to decontaminate e-waste contaminated soil. ? Adding sodium citrate in electrolyte was a good choice for decontaminating the soil. ? The system has good performance with low cost. This work investigates the influence of electrokinetic-bioremediation (EK-BIO) on remediating soil polluted by persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and heavy metals (mainly Cu, Pb and Ni), originated from electronic waste recycling activity. The results demonstrate that most of POPs and metals were removed from the soil. More than 60% of metals and 90% of POPs in the soil were removed after a 30-day EK-BIO remediation assisted by citrate. A citrate sodium concentration of 0.02 g/L was deemed to be suitable because higher citrate did not significantly improve treatment performance whereas increasing dosage consumption. Citrate increased soil electrical current and electroosmotic flow. After remediation, metal residues mainly existed in stable and low-toxic states, which could effectively lower the potential hazard of toxic metals to the surrounding environment and organisms. EK-BIO treatment influenced soil microbial counts, dehydrogenase activity and community structure.

Fu Chen ,   Qi Zhang   et al.

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