The normal operation of aircraft and flights can be affected by various unpredictable factors, such as severe weather, airport closure, and corrective maintenance, leading to disruption of the planned schedule. When a disruption occurs, the airline operation control center performs various operations to reassign resources (e.g., flights, aircraft, and crews) and redistribute passengers to restore the schedule while minimizing costs. We introduce different sources of disruption and corresponding operations. Then, basic models and recently proposed extensions for aircraft recovery, crew recovery, and integrated recovery are reviewed, with the aim of providing models and methods for different disruption scenarios in the practical implementation of airlines. In addition, we provide suggestions for future research directions in these topics.
Eye movement is an important indicator of information-seeking behavior and provides insight into cognitive strategies which are vital for decision-making. Various measures based on eye movements have been proposed to capture humans’ ability to process information in a complex environment. The effectiveness of these measures has not yet been fully explored in the field of air traffic management. This paper presents a comparative study on eye-movement measures in air traffic controllers with different levels of working experience. Two commonly investigated oculomotor behaviors, fixation and saccades, together with gaze entropy, are examined. By comparing the statistical properties of the relevant metrics, it is shown that working experience has a notable effect on eye-movement patterns. Both fixation and saccades differ between qualified and novice controllers, with the former type of controller employing more efficient searching strategies. These findings are useful in enhancing the quality of controller training and contributing to an understanding of the information-seeking mechanisms humans use when executing complex tasks.